Modern pneumatic tires are made using natural rubber, synthetic rubber, fabric, steel wires and carbon black. Many tires also include synthetic chemicals such as silica to enhance various features. Tires usually consist of a tread pattern and a body (Carcass). While the tread is responsible for traction, the Carcass forms the basic structure that contains air.
Tires can be segmented on the basis of following categories:
On the basis of construction
  • Cross Ply or Bias Ply
    • The CASING is composed of several CRISS CROSS textile plies, running from bead to bead, at an angle to the rolling direction.
    • The TREAD is not stabilized.
    • The TREAD and SIDEWALLS are formed by the same ply structure.
    • When rolling, the TREAD is subjected to flexing and this causes:
      • Deformation of the tread in foot print area on the ground
      • Friction with the ground
      • Pantographic movement between casing plies like a scissor
    • This Results in:
      • Accelerated wear
      • Less grip due to lower foot print area on the ground
      • Less road holding, as TREAD is not stabilized
      • Increase in fuel consumption
      • Heat buildup, due to pantographic movement (scissoring effect) between casing plies
  • Radial Tires
    • The CASING is composed of one single steel ply, running from bead to bead, at 90° to the rolling direction.
    • The Tread is stabilized by a belt made up of several steel plies.
    • The Tread and Side Walls function independently.
    • When rolling, the TREAD is not affected by any flexing and this helps in:
      • Less Deformation of the tread in foot print area on the ground
      • Less Friction with the ground
      • No Pantographic movement as there is only one steel casing ply.
    • This Results in:
      • Increased Tread Life
      • Excellent Road Grip
      • Better road holding & precise driving control due to stabilized tread
      • Increase fuel efficiency
      • Cooler running as there is no pantographic movement (scissoring effect) between casing plies & no tread friction with the ground.
On the basis of tread pattern
  • Summer Tires
    These tires are specially designed to offer optimum performance in summers. They come equipped with a block shaped tread pattern for dry and wet grip. The rubber compound also offers good thermal resistance for improved tire life.
  • Winter Tires
    These tires with deep grooves and blocky tread pattern to offer good grip over snow and ice. The pattern is optimized to offer a 'biting-effect' for improved braking over snow. These tires have an innovative compound that keeps the tires warm for better traction.
  • All Season Tires
    As the name suggests, these tires offer good year-round performance but they may not perform ably over excessively wet track or at in extreme temperatures.
  • All Terrain tires
    These tires are suitable for on-road as well as off-road use. They come equipped with a special tread pattern with large lugs to offer confident over rough and unpaved roads alongside good traction over highways. They also offer long tire life.
  • Performance oriented
    These tires are specially designed to offer high performance. They offer superior wet and dry traction along with precise handling and effective braking. Since they are made up of soft rubber compound, the tread life on these tires isn't very high.
Example- 185/65/R 16 91V :
  • 185 – This part represents the cross sectional width of tire in mm.
  • 65 – This part represents the aspect ratio of the profile in mm. 65 would mean that the sidewall height of the tire is 65% of the width of the tire i.e 65% of 185mm.
  • R – This part represents the construction type of the tire. ' R ' signifies a Radial construction
  • 16 – It represents Rim diameter ( wheel height ) in inches.
  • 91 – This part represents the Loading Index of the tire, which is the maximum load bearing capacity of the tire ( in kgs ). 91 means that the tire is capable of bearing a load of up to 615 kgs.
  • V – This part is indicative of the Speed Index i.e the maximum speed the tire can achieve without getting damaged. V means a speed rating of maximum 240 km/h.
For best all-round performance, it is not recommended to mix tire brands. This is because every brand would have different construction techniques, would incorporate different technologies and the tires would have different wearing stages. It is recommended to have all tires of same brand and specifications.
In order to achieve best all-round performance, it is highly recommended to have all tires identical to each other in terms of brand, tread pattern, dimension, loading index and speed rating and construction type.
In fact, it is strictly recommended to have all 4 running tires of exact same size (unless & until specified by the vehicle manufacturer) and of same construction type i.e. all 4 radial or all 4 bias ply type.
For a proper handling and ride comfort, it is recommended to have all tires of same type i.e all tubeless or all of tube type.
Run Flat tires have reinforced sidewalls which help you drive your vehicle for a good number of miles, at a reasonable speed, in case of a puncture.
Optimum air pressure for tires is always suggested by the vehicle manufacturer. It is usually mentioned across the inside of the front doors or B-pillar, as well as on the vehicle manual.
The manufacturing date is actually printed on the tire sidewall in the form of a DOT number.
The last 4 numbers of the DOT represent the manufacturing week and year. If the last 4 digits of DOT are 1217, then it means the tire was manufactured in the 12th week of 2017.
While it is recommended to replace all 4 tires for optimum safety and traction, yet, if you are replacing only 2 tires then it is better to have them installed on the rear axle. This is because over wet or slippery surface, worn-out rear tires could put your vehicle in a ' fish tail ' slide and retrieving control through steering wheel may not be possible.
Tire valves have a rubber base which could get brittle with time. Also, the valve stem may become weak with time. So, it is recommended to replace the tire valves every time you replace a tire. This will prevent any unwanted air leakage.
One of the ways of saving fuel is by keeping the tires of your vehicle properly inflated. Under-inflated tires require more energy to be brought into rotation, hence, more fuel consumption.
Keeping people’s requirement in mind, Ceat has come up with a fuel efficient tire-CEAT Fuelsmarrt tire
Proper maintenance of tires would not only enhance the tire life, but would also help them resist punctures, offer superior performance and a comfortable and quiet ride quality. Following are the ways to take good care of your tires:
  • Maintaining optimum tire pressure
  • Proper wheel alignment
  • Proper wheel balancing
  • Regular tire rotation
  • Regularly checking for cuts, abrasions etc.
  • Do not exceed the loading index
Wheel alignment ensures proper handling of the vehicle and even tread-wear. A vehicle is said to be properly aligned when all the suspension and steering components are functioning soundly and wheel assemblies are running straight and true.
Signs that stress towards wheel alignment include uneven tread wear, changed steering response and vehicle pulling to one side.
Improper wheel balancing is caused by uneven weight distribution on the wheels. This leads to uneven rotation of tires, thus, resulting in annoying vibration, tire wobbling and uneven tread wearing. Wheel balancing ensures that the correct weights are added to the tire rims to balance them and provide a smooth ride quality.
It is important to get the wheels balanced every time you get new tires fitted.
Tire rotation is the practice of moving the tires of a car from one position to another in order to ensure even tread-wear.
Tires on one axle can wear faster than those on the other one due to different driving habits, frequent braking or uneven weight distribution. In order to ensure even wearing of all 4 tires, it is recommended to practice tire-rotation between axles after every 5000 kms.
Keeping an optimum air pressure is one of the easiest and most effective ways of taking proper care of the tires. It offers following benefits:
  • Safety
    Under / Over inflated tires are usually one of the most prominent reasons for tire blow-outs. Since they do not offer an optimized contact patch with the tarmac the braking efficiency of the vehicle decreases.
  • Tire Life
    Appropriate air pressure ensures a uniform contact patch with the tarmac. This helps in providing optimum performance and leads to uniform wearing, thus, enhancing tire tread life.
  • Economy
    Under / Over inflated tires require more power to be brought into motion, and thus consume more fuel.
  • Handling
    Tires with correct pressure ensure precise handling and steering response.
  • Confident grip
    Tires with correct air pressure offer confident wet and dry grip as they grip the tarmac well.
Nitrogen is an inert gas and its chemical nature keeps it non-reactive. Hence, it does not exhibit any changes in property with change in temperature range. So, a tire inflated with nitrogen is less likely to deflate quickly due to low permeability of the gas. Also, it helps in keeping the tire cool, especially over long highway runs.
Tires usually have a shelf life of about 5 years. With time, they get exposed to variable temperatures and UV-rays. This creates micro-cracks on the tread and sidewall. Such a tire, when used, can cause frequent punctures and blow-outs. So, it is important to use the spare tire as a regular tire with proper tire rotations. If not, then the spare tire, even if unused, must be replaced after 5 years.
A bulge or bubble in the tire sidewall is sometimes a result of damage from coming in contact with curb, a pothole or some other object. It could also be caused by a faulty tire construction. Such a damage is usually irreparable and requires tire change. However, it is best to have the tire inspected by an authorized tire outlet.
While flat tire is usually a resultant of driving on rough surfaces or tire being pierced by a sharp object, yet, poor maintenance of the tire can also result in frequent punctures.
In order to solve this, it is important to keep the tires properly inflated. Under inflated tires usually fail often. Also, using tires that are older than 4-5 years can cause frequent tire punctures.
Ceat has launched its range of Puncture-safe tires, which come lined with a special sealant to prevent punctures.
While it is recommended to replace all 4 tires for optimum safety and traction, yet, it is okay to replace at least 2 tires. It is better to install new two tires on the rear axle.
Tires usually make noise as a result of uneven or irregular tread wear. This could be caused because of improper wheel balancing or improper wheel alignment. It is best that you get the tires inspected at an authorized CEAT outlet.
Vibration is usually caused because of improperly balanced wheels. It requires an immediate attention. If the vibration persists even after proper balancing, then the fault could pertain to faulty steering or suspension system.
This is a classic symptom that your vehicle requires proper wheel alignment.
Tires usually run good for 40,000 -45,000 kms, depending upon the usage and driving style. You can use following parameters to assess if you require new tires:
  • a) Visible low tread depth, worn up to TWI.
  • b) Uneven tread wear / spotty wear on a tire
  • c) Reduced braking efficiency
  • d) Reduced wet traction
  • e) Tires are older than 5 years ( from the date of manufacturing )
Tires usually have a shelf life of 4-5 years, from the date of manufacturing. Using the post this time frame is risky as with time tires use their traction and develop micro-cracks. So, it is best to replace tires with new ones if they are older than 5 years.
While tires may look good, they may not be fit for use if they are older than 5 years from the date of manufacturing.
In case the tires have good tread depth and are not older than 5 years then perhaps they could be used. However, such tires should be used only if they offer confident traction and efficient braking.
While it is recommended to replace all 4 tires for optimum safety and traction, yet, it is ok to replcae at least 2 tires. It is better to installed new two tires on the rear axle.
Any damage to the sidewall is usually irreparable and requires a change of tire. However, it is best to get the tire inspected from an authorized CEAT outlet for confirming the same.
Definitely! The type of tire and tread pattern you choose is widely affected by your driving style. People with an aggressive and more spirited style of driving should go for high performance tires as such tires offer good braking efficiency and superior handling.
Similarly, those strictly driving over highways and well paved roads should opt for Highway terrain tires as these offer a comfortable, quiet and safe ride.
Tire selection mainly based on the following factors
  • Vehicle type
  • Application / Use
  • Tire Rim Combinations
  • Speed and driving conditions
  • Type of Tread design and Wheel Position
  • Load
It is not mandatory to stick to the OE fitted tire. You can always opt for tires which are more
suited to your requirements. However, kindly ensure that you buy tires with size and
Specification that is compatible with your vehicle.
It is highly recommended that you purchase tire from authorised CEAT dealer.
Tire upsizing is a practice of replacing a tyre with a wider one with lower profile and keep the diameter difference within a permissible range with respect to the OE fitted tire.
Tire upsizing usually results in better road grip and high speed stability.
Benefits of upsizing
  • Improved traction and cornering grip
  • Improved stability
  • Improved steering response
  • Improved aesthetics
Demerits of upsizing
  • Increased chances of tire and rim damage by road hazards
  • Increased cost of tires and rims
  • Insurance Company approval required
  • Increased likelihood of contact with wheel arches

© 2017 CEAT Ltd. All rights reserved. An RPG Enterprise.